A record 73,429 spectators turned out for the friendly at SunLife Stadium. It was the largest crowd ever to see a soccer match at the south Florida venue.
Brazil were thrashed by Germany 7-1 in the semi-finals the 2014 World Cup. The drubbing came one round after Brazil had beaten Colombia 2-1 in the quarter-finals.
Neymar scored in the 83rd minute for the five-time World Cup champion Brazil.
Midfielder Juan Cuadrado was sent off in the 49th minute for a foul on Neymar, forcing Colombia to play most of the second half a man down.
Neymar, 22, was playing his first game since being named captain by new coach Dunga, who picked just 10 of the 23 man World Cup team.
The move to make Neymar captain appeared to pay off as he has now fully recovered from the back injury he sustained in the victory over Colombia when he was kneed in the back by Juan Camilo Zuniga.
Neymar will also captain Brazil when they face Ecuador in their second friendly on Tuesday.